nutritional status of hiv positive patients



Nutritional Status Of HIV Positive Patients Nutritional Status Of HIV Positive Patients Новинка

Nutritional Status Of HIV Positive Patients

Malnutrition is one of the earliest complications of HIV infection. This cross-sectional study (involving 100 newly diagnosed HIV positive patients) was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the nutritional status and immune status of HIV positive patients, and to look into the various factors contributing to malnutrition in these patients. In the study sample, 46% of the patients were malnourished according to body mass index, 85% were malnourished according to triceps skin-fold thickness and 98% were malnourished according to mid arm muscle circumference. Tuberculosis, chronic diarrhea, candidiasis and depression were associated with malnutrition. Nutritional, anthropometric and laboratory parameters were found to have significant correlation with the immune status. Hence, nutritional assessment of HIV-infected persons can identify those at risk for adverse outcomes from nutritional deficiencies and help in planning appropriate interventions.
Assessment Of HIV/TB Program And Its Implementation Challenges Assessment Of HIV/TB Program And Its Implementation Challenges Новинка

Assessment Of HIV/TB Program And Its Implementation Challenges

Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death and common presenting illness among people living with HIV. Likewise, HIV infection is more common among tuberculosis patients than among the general population. The consequence of failing to diagnose TB in person living with HIV or of not diagnosing HIV in a TB patient are severe. The aim of this study was to asses HIV/TB program &identify challenges to effective implementations. The findings revealed out 102 HIV positive patients registered in October 2008 in both facilities, 14(13.7%) of them have been screened for Tuberculosis. None of the patients has been put on IPT, whereas 74.5% of HIV positive patients were put on CPT. out of 61 illegible patients for antiretroviral therapy, 59% of them were put on this regimen. Out of 93 registered tuberculosis patients 67.7% of them were screened for HIV and 26.9% of them were found to be HIV positive. Among these 52.9% of them were put on CPT and 41.1% were put on ART. Both facilities didn’t have HIV/TB coordinator but they have trained person on HIV/TB. There was no adequate resources allocated for both facilities, no adequate room for ART, TB and data clerks.
Research in Sudanese HIV Patients Research in Sudanese HIV Patients Новинка

Research in Sudanese HIV Patients

This research is a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between CD4+ cell count, intestinal parasites and diarrhea in HIV infected patients in Khartoum State, Sudan between the years 2007 – 2010. The study was conducted on 657 HIV infected and non-infected patients, of the study sample 423 were HIV positive patients. The HIV positive patients in the sample were divided into two categories the first on ART and the second without ART. Stool samples were collected from patients to diagnose parasitic infections by examination of a single stool specimen as fresh wet mount preparation, formol-ether concentration technique and staining. CD4 counts were recorded to assess the status of HIV infection vis-a-vis parasitic infection. The results showed that diarrhea was more prevalent in HIV infected than in HIV non-infected patients. Patients with chronic diarrhea had lower CD4 cell counts. The study reached very significant and important conclusions in the association between CD4+ cell count, intestinal parasites and diarrhea which all can lead to better diagnose for the treatment of HIV infected patients.
Nutritional Status of Patients with End Stage Renal Disease Nutritional Status of Patients with End Stage Renal Disease Новинка

Nutritional Status of Patients with End Stage Renal Disease

Malnutrition is highly prevalent worldwide among hemodialysis patients and is one of the strongest predictors of morbidity and mortality. So, this book determine the prevalence of malnutrition among hemodialysis patients, determine the impact of demographic socioeconomic factors on malnutrition indicators, determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease complications, evaluate the diet & fluid compliance among hemodialysis patients, and clarify the correlation between dietary intake and malnutrition among hemodialysis patients living in Gaza-Palestine. This book will help to identify opportunities for improving the nutritional status for hemodialysis patients.
Survival Status of HIV Patients Who Are On ART In 2 District Hospitals Survival Status of HIV Patients Who Are On ART In 2 District Hospitals Новинка

Survival Status of HIV Patients Who Are On ART In 2 District Hospitals

This book try to show the effect of CD4 count WHO staging TB exposure and age on survival of HIV/AIDS patients in two district Hospitals in southern Ethiopia in addition to that it shows the impact of some routine laboratory result on survival of HIV patients and in Ethiopia this routine activity is not done in standard way and this has a negative impact on survival of patients living with HIV/AIDS who are on ART treatment in some district Hospitals in southern Ethiopia
Nutritional status of infants born to HIV infected mothers Nutritional status of infants born to HIV infected mothers Новинка

Nutritional status of infants born to HIV infected mothers

A mother who is HIV positive not only worries of her health but also of the risk of transmitting the infection to her child. Health care workers intervene to prevent infection during pregnancy and child birth. There after infection is only likely to occur with breastfeeding hence replacement feeding is preferred to prevent HIV infection amongst mothers. It's sustainability in economically constrained societies can lead to malnutrition. The results of the study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya reveal the nutrition status of breastfed and replacement fed infants. Though breastfeeding carries a risk of HIV infection it leads to better nutrition status in the children.
Youth's Experiences in Disclosing HIV Positive Status Youth's Experiences in Disclosing HIV Positive Status Новинка

Youth's Experiences in Disclosing HIV Positive Status

Youth is a group of people which has been greatly affected by HIV epidemic in Malawi. They are vulnerable to HIV infection because they are at a stage where they are beginning sexual exploration. Youth therefore, need a lot of information and support on HIV preventions, and voluntary counseling and testing. They should be encouraged and assisted to disclose their HIV status whether positive or negative for them to access necessary support systems. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore youth’s experiences in disclosing their HIV positive status Methodology: This is an exploratory study that adopted a qualitative approach utilizing the phenomenological design to explore the experiences of HIV positive participants in disclosing their HIV positive status. The study was conducted in Likuni urban and Nambuma areas in Lilongwe district, Malawi. Ten HIV positive participants five males and five females between the ages 19-25 years were purposively sampled half from each area. A qualitative approach to data collection was done through face to face individual in-depth interviews. All the interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim using qualitative content analysis.
To tell or not to tell? HIV positive status disclosure in Africa To tell or not to tell? HIV positive status disclosure in Africa Новинка

To tell or not to tell? HIV positive status disclosure in Africa

Telling one's HIV test result to others is a public health goal in HIV/AIDS prevention. It helps to engage in preventive behaviors and to access the necessary support for coping with serostatus or illness. It may motivate sexual partners to seek testing, change behavior and ultimately decrease transmission of HIV. Nonetheless the reality is that many HIV positive individuals do not disclose their results to their partners, families and social networks. The secrecy towards HIV results has contributed to the widespread stigmatization of HIV infection and continued spread of infection. As the global fight to HIV/AIDS progresses the importance of HIV disclosure is becoming more important. The book explored HIV positive status disclosure rate, the rezones behind non-disclosure of HIV positive results, and the outcomes of HIV status disclosure and identifies the role of gender in HIV results secrecy. Multilateral organizations, program planners’, policy makers and researchers in academic institutions are the intended beneficiaries of the book.
HIV Sero Status Disclosure Among Clients Attending Art Clinics HIV Sero Status Disclosure Among Clients Attending Art Clinics Новинка

HIV Sero Status Disclosure Among Clients Attending Art Clinics

The United Nations Population Fund has declared HIV/AIDS is a young people''s disease. Individuals between the ages of 15 and 24 are infected every 14 seconds. Disclosure is an important factor in HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Disclosure of ones HIV status enables for improved access to prevention and treatment programs provides increased opportunities for risk reduction and helps in planning for the future. This book explores the rates barriers and outcomes of HIV Sero-positive status disclosure in Bahirdar town with an insight to same at the national level.Therefore, the book is vital to provide valuable information for practitioners and experts on the rates, barriers and outcomes of HIV Sero-positive status disclosure in the country in general and in Amhara National Regional State in particular.
Assessment of HIV status disclosure among PLWHA in Tano North District Assessment of HIV status disclosure among PLWHA in Tano North District Новинка

Assessment of HIV status disclosure among PLWHA in Tano North District

Despite the numerous benefits of HIV- positive status disclosure, studies have shown that the rates of disclosure among developing world are notably lower ranging from 16.7% to 86% compared to rates reported from the developed world (42% to 100%) (WHO, 2004). This research was a cross sectional study designed to determine the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS who have disclosed their HIV-positive status to their sexual partners/family members and the reasons for non-disclosure in the Tano North District. Systematic random sampling method was used to draw 228 PLWHA for the study. The data collection tool was a structured questionnaire. Cross tabulations were done to determine the relationship between specific outcome variables and their predictors of disclosure. Chi-square tests were calculated and p-values of less than 0.05 were accepted as being statistical significant for all associations. The findings revealed that the proportion of HIV positive status disclosure to sexual partner(s)/family members was between 49.9% to 51.9%. Almost half (49.1%), of all persons interviewed during the study who had tested positive for HIV failed to disclose their HIV status.
Cytomegalovirus Infection Among HIV/AIDS Patients in Ilorin, Nigeria Cytomegalovirus Infection Among HIV/AIDS Patients in Ilorin, Nigeria Новинка

Cytomegalovirus Infection Among HIV/AIDS Patients in Ilorin, Nigeria

HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been found to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The virus has been reported to enhance HIV replication and accelerate the progression of HIV to AIDS. In Nigeria there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of Cytomegalovirus infection among HIV/AIDS patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence rate as well as risk factors for CMV infection among HIV/AIDS patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among consecutively recruited HIV sero-positive patients attending the HAART clinic at U.I.T.H, Ilorin between October 2008 to September 2009. A volume of 5 ml blood sample was collected from each consenting participant as well as age and sex matched HIV sero-positive control group . The sera was assayed for CMV IgG/IgM using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was also used to assess the risk factors for CMV infection among HIV sero-positive participants
Metabolic trends in HIV infected patients Metabolic trends in HIV infected patients Новинка

Metabolic trends in HIV infected patients

The emergence of liver diseases as one of the major causes of death in people infected with HIV has paralleled the introduction of more effective anti retroviral therapies. HIV/AIDS induced lipid profile alteration has been proven to be a common problem in HIV/AIDS. Studies were carried out to determine the effects of anti retroviral treatment on liver enzymes of patients and evaluate the changes in lipid profile and body mass index (BMI) in HIV/AIDS patients on anti retroviral and anti-tuberculosis therapies. Results showed that highly active anti retroviral therapy is associated with low hepatotoxicity at therapy initiation, regardless of drug class or combination. There is a positive linear relationship between duration of treatment and concentration of transaminases over the years. There is a significant positive correlation between CD4+ counts and BMI in HIV positive patients on treatment. Tuberculosis worsens the immune suppression caused by HIV and enhances HIV-induced lipid profile changes. Anti retroviral drugs when coupled to anti tuberculosis induces complex lipid profile and BMI alterations. These results suggest a need for routine laboratory and dietary monitoring.
LYMPHOMAS IN HIV PATIENTS LYMPHOMAS IN HIV PATIENTS Новинка

LYMPHOMAS IN HIV PATIENTS

HIV infected patients have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing lymphomas. With a rising incidence and prevalence of HIV infections especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where over 60% of the HIV-positive patients in the world is found, this would certainly have a bearing on HIV/AIDS-associated conditions, lymphomas inclusive. Assessment of the epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of AIDS-related lymphomas in Cameroon, a developing country in Sub-Saharan Africa has been of interest. The analysis at the Hematologic Unit of the University Teaching Hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon, where most of these patients are seen, unveiled findings similar to several other studies on the same subject in other countries. This study offers basic information for medical students, doctors and researchers interested in AID-related lymphomas in Cameroon.
THE PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF DISCLOSING A POSITIVE HIV DIAGNOSIS THE PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF DISCLOSING A POSITIVE HIV DIAGNOSIS Новинка

THE PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF DISCLOSING A POSITIVE HIV DIAGNOSIS

The aim and objective of this investigation is to explore,on a preliminary basis,the psychological and social effects on a sample of women following disclosure of their positive HIV diagnosis.The study was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal,SA. A convenience sampling approach was used to collect the sample.Inclusion criteria included female, older than 18,with a positive HIV status.Participants''disclosure of a positive HIV status was a key inclusion criterion.Semi-structured interviews were used in the collection of data.The themes in the transcripts as well as from the literature review were utilized as a guide.The results of this study suggest that there are various factors that influence whether disclosure of a positive HIV diagnosis takes place,largely based on the initial adjustment to the positive HIV diagnosis,the individual''s socio-cultural context and the weighing of potential reactions (whether positive or negative) that disclosing a positive HIV diagnosis can induce.The psychological effects of disclosing a positive HIV diagnosis that were identified in this study were anger, fear of stigma/discrimination, shock and disbelief and a false sense of acceptance of the diagnosis.
Profile of HIV/AIDS patients who are not on AntiRetroViralTherapy Profile of HIV/AIDS patients who are not on AntiRetroViralTherapy Новинка

Profile of HIV/AIDS patients who are not on AntiRetroViralTherapy

Most of the studies done in the field of HIV were focused around patients who are taking Anti Retro viral drugs .There are very limited number of studies are available for patients who are not under the treatment of Anti- Retro viral drugs. This work incorporates most of the recent findings that are relevant to the HIV/AIDS patients who are not an Anti-Retro Viral drugs. While formulating the health policies, it has been deemed necessary about that the clear understanding of the demographic profile and socio economic status of the people who are affected by the disease. This book deals with the demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients ,route of transmission of HIV among the patients, Behavioural pattern of the patients, discordant couples ,hygienic practises followed by the patients, clinical profile of the patients and prevalence of opportunistic infections among them.So this will give the clear idea about the profile of the HIV/AIDS patients who are not on Anti- Retroviral drugs in Chennai, India.
Selenium And HIV Epidemiology Selenium And HIV Epidemiology Новинка

Selenium And HIV Epidemiology

The HIV pandemic has continued to spread especially in sub Sahara Africa, while Multi drug resistance HIV has emerged rendering the current conventional treatment of HIV ineffective. There is a need for new treatment regime which is cheap, effective and not prone to resistance development by HIV. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates Nuclear Factor kappa B this stimulates Tissue Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptors, which activates the cytokine system including Apoptosis Signaling Kinase. In absence of seleno-enzyme GSHpx this process leads to apoptosis of CD4 T cells in Selenium Deficient HIV positive patients. The study looks at the effect of increased selenium intake by HIV patients. This study targets HIV clinicians, medical students, community health practitioners working with HIV/AIDS patients and Health Policy Makers.
Impact of Heart Friendly Mix on Cardiovascular Patients Impact of Heart Friendly Mix on Cardiovascular Patients Новинка

Impact of Heart Friendly Mix on Cardiovascular Patients

This book entitled "Impact of Heart Friendly Mix on Cardiovascular Patients" provides you the details on the prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases in the targeted area. It also provides you the demographic profile and nutritional status of the Cardiovascular patients. This book gives information on the effect of selected heart friendly foods on the lipid profile of selected cardiovascular patients.
Personality Profile of HIV Positive Patients Personality Profile of HIV Positive Patients Новинка

Personality Profile of HIV Positive Patients

This book presents a study of personality profile of HIV positive patients that is based on measurement of personality characteristics by 16 P.F., sensation seeking scale, quality of life and locus of control.Currently there are no set guidelines for measurement of personality correlates. Counselling in centres has begun to receive screening purpose of the population. Counsellors at Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres (ICTC) is dealing counselling and testing, partly in an effort to manage and address this problem. The investigator proposes to do research on the personality characteristics of the HIV positive patients. The research aimed to address this gap by analysing the personality differences between normal and HIV positive persons. It is clear from the results of this research that a link between susceptibility of HIV infection and certain socio-demographic characteristics, personality factors and dimensions, which plays a vital role in engaging in high risk behaviour resulting in this dreaded disease. This book will help to students, scholars, researcher, medical practitioners, counsellor, social worker, training institutions and HIV prone persons.
HIV Status, Fertility Intentions and Contraceptive Use in Nigeria HIV Status, Fertility Intentions and Contraceptive Use in Nigeria Новинка

HIV Status, Fertility Intentions and Contraceptive Use in Nigeria

The study analyzed the relationship between fertility intention and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria’s Federal Capital territory, Abuja. It also examined the relationship between HIV status and fertility intention and compared patterns of contraceptive use and fertility intentions between HIV positive and HIV negative women. This was with a view to identifying the dynamics of fertility decision making and contraceptive use among women living with HIV in the study area. The study concluded that being HIV positive had no dampening effect on childbearing desires. Hence, programmes and policies aimed at strengthening mother-to-child transmission should encourage contraceptive use among HIV positive women.
Adverse Drug Reactions To Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adverse Drug Reactions To Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Новинка

Adverse Drug Reactions To Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)

This was a Retrospective Case-Control study conducted at the Antiretroviral department, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences(RIMS),Kadapa,India.The study was conducted to assess the incidence, prevalence, severity pattern, predictability, preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to HAART, and to identify the risk factors for ADRs in HIV-positive patients receiving HAART. Patients between 2010 and May 2011 newly registered HIV patients on HAART therapy of either sex were included. Demographic details, occupations details, education, CD4 cell count, weight and hemoglobin (Hb),Laboratory data, drugs used and suspected ADRs observed were collected.This is the First Retrospective Case-Control study that was designed to evaluate the incidence of ARV therapy-induced ADRs in Indian HIV-positive patients.
Dietary Intake and Nutrition Status of HIV-infected Women in Kenya Dietary Intake and Nutrition Status of HIV-infected Women in Kenya Новинка

Dietary Intake and Nutrition Status of HIV-infected Women in Kenya

The HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a serious health and development problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This is particularly true in Western Kenya where it exacerbates poverty by decreasing agricultural production, food and nutrition security especially in HIV/AIDS affected households. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake, health and nutrition status of HIV infected women attending patients support centers in Suba District.This was a cross-sectional where two patient support centers; Suba district hospital patient support Centre and Mbita health Centre patient support Centre were used to identify HIV infected women included in the study.There was no statistically significant relationship between morbidity and nutrition status; nutrition status and household food sharing dynamics, cultural beliefs and taboos at 0.05 level of significant among the HIV infected women attending patient support centers in Suba district. There is need to encourage and support good nutrition and proper health care support among the PLWHA. The study findings are useful in planning and implementing interventions that aim at improving health and nutrition status of HIV positive women.
At the Crossroads: Women and HIV in Zimbabwe At the Crossroads: Women and HIV in Zimbabwe Новинка

At the Crossroads: Women and HIV in Zimbabwe

This books measures pregnant women’s attitudes towards HIV counseling and testing in urban settings. Thematic interpretations were employed to assess the women’s attitudes hence the study conducted was mainly qualitative in nature. This book reveals that socio-demographic characteristics such as age, marital status, level of education, religious affiliation, location, ethnicity, nature of employment and number of pregnancies of individual pregnant women influence their development of either positive or negative attitudes towards HIV counselling and testing. It is also highlighted in this book that knowledge of associated benefits of HIV counseling and testing influenced the formation of either positive or negative attitudes among pregnant women. In addition, tradition, culture and the status of women in most African marriage systems (patriarchal) dictate that women consult their husbands in most issues before they make and undertake major decisions.
Prevalence of HHV8 in AIDS Patients with Kaposi's sarcoma Prevalence of HHV8 in AIDS Patients with Kaposi's sarcoma Новинка

Prevalence of HHV8 in AIDS Patients with Kaposi's sarcoma

Confirmed HIV positive patients who presented at the University College Hospital within the period of October 2008 to September 2009, were examined for KS. The pattern of presentation was described and the diagnosis of AIDS-KS confirmed histologically. To document the possible association of risk factors, a control group of HIV positive patients without KS, age and sex matched was recruited. Their clinical, immunological and virological characteristics were compared. The presence of HHV-8 infection was detected immunohistochemically using the HHV8 LANA1 (orf 73, clone13B10) antibody. Thirteen patients with AIDS-KS were recruited during the study period. The prevalence of AIDS-KS in Ibadan is 0.5% and the male: female ratio was 1.2:1. There was no statistical difference between the case and control groups’ number of lifetime sexual partners (P=0.61), history of STD (p=0.39), CD4 count (p=0.70) and HIV-1 viral load (p=0.20). All the patients presented with multiple sites of involvement. All the AIDS-KS tissue sections indicated a positive stain for the HHV-8 antigen (p=0.001) while the non-KS tissue sections were negative.
Reproductive decision making of HIV positive Zambian women Reproductive decision making of HIV positive Zambian women Новинка

Reproductive decision making of HIV positive Zambian women

HIV infection in women of reproductive age has implications for health care and motherhood. To understand determinants of HIV positive women’s decisions on motherhood, an exploratory descriptive study was conducted at three health centres in Lusaka, Zambia. Data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires completed by health care providers and in-depth interviews with HIV positive women aged 20 to 49 years. Presentation of data used themes based on the level of disclosure: apprehensive women who restricted knowledge of their seropositivity to health care providers; cautious women who disclosed their seropositive status selectively to spouses and certain family members; and optimistic women who openly disclosed their HIV status to all. There was evidence that health care providers were insensitive to the needs of seropositive women, revealed through their judgemental language and limited empathy. Access to health and support depended on the level of openness. Reproductive decision making was influenced to a greater degree by cultural expectations and personal preferences than by health services. Thus, there is need to target policy to support HIV positive women.
Condom use among HIV positive clients: A comparative study Condom use among HIV positive clients: A comparative study Новинка

Condom use among HIV positive clients: A comparative study

So far little is known about the sexual risk behavior of HIV positive patients and until recently the focus of HIV prevention efforts worldwide was largely on people uninfected with HIV and the sexual risk practice of HIV infected persons did not receive due attention. A total of 222 (48.9%) respondents reported that they were sexually active in the previous three months. Of these 163 (73.4%) with regular partners, 29 (13.1%) with non regular partner and 23 (10.4%) with commercial partners. Of the the sexually actives, 111 (50%) of them didn't use condom consistently for the last three months. Out of these, 69 (62.2%) were females, above half of them were found in the age group between 26-35 years, 91% were urban resident and 73% were married.
Survival of patients under MDR-Tb treatment in Ethiopia Survival of patients under MDR-Tb treatment in Ethiopia Новинка

Survival of patients under MDR-Tb treatment in Ethiopia

Higher hazard of death was noted in patients who started treatment after a month of period diagnosed as MDR-TB, smoker, HIV positive and who have clinical complication during the treatment period. Therefore, reinforcing the existing treatment program to include all MDR-TB patients and urgent need for non-medical interventions are necessary to improve patients’ survival in Ethiopia. This book have a more detailed concepts on the transmission, sign and symptom, diagnosis and survival time of MDR-TB patients, hence if you buy it you will not regret.
The Effectiveness of Nutrition Assessment in HIV and AIDS Management The Effectiveness of Nutrition Assessment in HIV and AIDS Management Новинка

The Effectiveness of Nutrition Assessment in HIV and AIDS Management

The present book studies the effectiveness of routine nutrition assessment offered to improve the nutrition status, well-being and quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS attending HIV treatment and care at Hewu Hospital in Chris Hani District of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. With the knowledge that HIV and malnutrition are interlinked, a great need for on-going nutritional assessment becomes critical in the treatment and care of people living with HIV and AIDS. In the absences of ARV treatment , people living with HIV and AIDS have a tendency to lose weight and ultimately become undernourished. At the same time ARV treatment is known to be associated with longer life span hence people living with HIV and AIDS tend to gain weight becoming overweight or obese.
HIV/AIDS and Domestic Violence Among Women HIV/AIDS and Domestic Violence Among Women Новинка

HIV/AIDS and Domestic Violence Among Women

As a matter of fact, there is a need for understanding the stories behind domestic violence and HIV/AIDS in women. Many research studies focus on the interaction between domestic violence and risky behaviours for HIV/AIDS infection and have ignored the experiences of women who are caught up in these situations. This work was aimed at exploring the experiences of HIV-positive women who are victims of domestic violence and tries to understand their feelings regarding the HIV status and the violence. Factors that contribute to the spread of HIV in women are also explored. It is argued that domestic violence and other socio-culturalfactors are the driving force behind the high incidence of HIV/AIDS in women. These factors also contribute to the continuation of dominant themes of domestic violence. The emerging stories of participants revealed that cultural factors situate women in positions that limit their ability to make decisions in the relationship, including sexual decisions. In the context of domestic violence, it not only becomes difficult for women to cope with their HIV diagnosis, but their positive HIV status also leads to the continuation of domestic violence.
HIV and Hepatitis C in injecting drug users in Ha Noi, Viet Nam HIV and Hepatitis C in injecting drug users in Ha Noi, Viet Nam Новинка

HIV and Hepatitis C in injecting drug users in Ha Noi, Viet Nam

Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Independently, each of these viruses is a serious threat to health, with HIV ravaging the body’s immune system, and HCV causing cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. Furthermore, co-infection with HIV/HCV weakens the response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients. IDUs with HIV/HCV co-infection are at a 20 times higher risk of having liver-related morbidity and mortality than IDUs with HIV alone. In Viet Nam, studies to ascertain the prevalence of HIV in IDUs have found high rates, but little is known about their HCV status. Therefore this book provides IDU HIV/HCV co-infection rates, in addition to the prevalence of HCV and HIV, and identifies factors associated with these viruses among 455 IDUs at four drug treatment centers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. The availability of information about HIV/HCV co-infection in this vulnerable group will be of benefit to investigators and programmers addressing the problems of identifying and providing more appropriate treatment to HIV-positive IDUs.
Quality of Life in HIV/AIDS Patients Quality of Life in HIV/AIDS Patients Новинка

Quality of Life in HIV/AIDS Patients

The global AIDS epidemic continues to grow and there is concerning evidence that some countries are seeing resurgence in new HIV infection rates which were previously stable or declining. Quality of life in persons living with HIV/ AIDS is a salient issue in care and management. Theory and research suggest that educational interventions to improve Quality of life in HIV/AIDS patients may be most effective when they are personalized and effectively compelling, when they provide models of desired behaviors, and when they are linked to social and cultural narratives. The current book describes quality of life among HIV/AIDS and effect of educational intervention on improving status of their health. This book would be useful to academicians and researchers who are interested in promotion of quality of life of patients in relation to HIV/IDS. This would also be helpful to policy makers and health managers engaged in HIV/IDS patients.
The kidney function trends in HIV/AIDS patients The kidney function trends in HIV/AIDS patients Новинка

The kidney function trends in HIV/AIDS patients

Human immunodeficiency virus related kidney disease is one of the leading causes of death and affects predominantly people of black descen. A cohort study was carried out at the Nylon District Hospital Douala, Cameroon to investigate the Kidney function trends amongst HIV seropositive individuals. Kidney function tests like serum urea, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, proteinuria and urine chemistry was measured amongst 329 participants amongst whom 30.4% were HIV negative and 69.6% were HIV positive. The age range of the study population was 18 to 60 years. There were 94(28.6%) males and 235 (71.5%) females. The percentage of HIV seropositivity was higher in females than in males. Although, Serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and proteinuria were significantly higher in the control group than in the HIV infected subjects, these values were not indicative of renal pathology. Considering only HIV positive individuals the mean serum creatinine was significantly higher in the Antiretoviral treatment (ART) naive group when compared to those who were already on ART. These findings indicate that renal function is not affected by the seropositivity status of individuals.
Nutritional Assessment Nutritional Assessment Новинка

Nutritional Assessment

Nutrition assessment is a huge multidisciplinary topic requiring input from a Nutrition Team where the clinician, the pharmacist, the dietician, specialist nurse and the laboratory personnel ensure the best available treatment protocols and outcomes for the frequently very sick patients requiring nutritional support. This book it thus intended to indicate how the laboratory personnel may help in the assessment and management of nutritional status.
Discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among Ugandans Discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among Ugandans Новинка

Discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among Ugandans

Discontinuation of, or outright defaulting on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by HIV-positive patients is harmful, and so is periodic unintentional non-adherence or treatment interruption. The resulting harm is especially more pronounced in sub-Saharan Africa where most individuals start HAART in advanced stages of the disease. Discontinuing patients could spread drug resistant virus to other individuals.
Duty to Disclose One's HIV Status Duty to Disclose One's HIV Status Новинка

Duty to Disclose One's HIV Status

HIV and AIDS pandemic continues to bring about unparalleled havoc especially in Africa. The alarming rates of HIV prevalence in the face of many prevention mechanisms have sent the world on its feet for new solutions to arrest and reverse the accelerating rate of HIV infection. Article 14 (1) (e) of the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa provides for the right to be informed of the HIV status of one’s sexual partner. This creates both a right to know one’s sexual partner’s HIV status and duty on persons who have tested positive or alternatively health care providers to disclose such status to their sexual partners. This book provides a detailed discussion on factors to be considered in implementing both the right and duty and the possible impact on the fight against HIV and women who bear the greatest burden. This book will be most useful to policy and law makers, professionals in NGOs, academics and anyone interested in contributing towards the fight against the HIV pandemic.
Nutritional status & associated factors among children with HIV/AIDS Nutritional status & associated factors among children with HIV/AIDS Новинка

Nutritional status & associated factors among children with HIV/AIDS

Death rates among children who are severely malnourished are about six times greater than among those who are healthy and well nourished in the same population, and twenty to fifty times greater than the rate in rich and prosperous countries,even this figure will be high among HIV population.This book has a lot of information on prevalence of malnutrition among HIV infected african children and different factors which predispose young children with HIV/AIDS in sub Saharan Africa.
A Public Health Nutritional Assessment of Elderly in Islamabad A Public Health Nutritional Assessment of Elderly in Islamabad Новинка

A Public Health Nutritional Assessment of Elderly in Islamabad

Elderly are the most vulnerable group of population in the community in terms of their health as well as the nutritional status. The nutritional assessment of elderly is a huge challenge since there are numerous associated factors, which are not simple to define. The present work is an effort to improve the nutritional status of the elderly in Islamabad through the assessment of nutritional status of the elderly in Islamabad with a further objective to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of elderly in Islamabad regarding their nutritional status. This work emphasizes the need for more research in the area of gerontology and nutrition so that the nutritional and health status of the elderly in Islamabad can be improved. There is also a dire need to amend the national and provincial health policies so that the components of health and nutrition related to the elderly may be added in these policies. Nutritional education needs to be imparted to the elderly, regarding the significance of their health and nutritional status.
Survival Of Patients Under Arv Survival Of Patients Under Arv Новинка

Survival Of Patients Under Arv

HIV/AIDS is a health problem in Cote d'Ivoire. With a prevalence rate of 4.7% in the general population aged between 15-49 years old (AIS CI-2005), the epidemic is generalized. As part of the second phase of the Global Fund, the measurement of indicators is a priority for the country. Where the conduct of an evaluation survey that will, in comparison with the baseline (February 2008), to assess the impact of the program The objective of the survey are: (i) to Evaluate the survival rate of people living with HIV after 12-18 months of antiretroviral treatment, (ii) to assess the main determinants of survival of patients on ARV and (iii) to determine the percentage of HIV-negative children (18-24 months) born to seropositive mothers. The results of the study showed that the survival rate of 12 months is estimated at 75% for patients placed on ARV between July 2007 and April 2008 against 71.7% for patients placed on ARV between January 2006 and December 2006, an Increase of 3.3%. Regarding children born to seropositive mothers, the proportion of children tested between 18-24 months is low (11%). The percentage of HIV-negative children born to HIV-positive mothers is estimated to 61.2%
Effect of Parental Income on Child Health Effect of Parental Income on Child Health Новинка

Effect of Parental Income on Child Health

This research has been built by estimating the affects of parental income on children''s nutritional health status for Tsimane'', a highly autarkic community of foragers and horticulturists who live in the Bolivian Amazon. The whole analysis was carried out in three steps: Univariate analysis, Multivariate analysis, and Robustness analysis. Up to the Multivariate analysis (for the children below 16 years of age), it was not possible to reach a definite conclusion about the effect of parental income on child health. Therefore, to examine the robustness of the results of the multivariate analysis, all the multivariate regressions were repeated with children below 10 years of age. Analysis says, father''s income suggests significant positive association with children''s nutritional health status only for the children below 10 years of age, access to credit for the mother suggests significant positive association with children''s nutritional health status for the children below 16 years of age, and family size consistently suggests significant negative association with children''s nutritional health status. This paper also discusses possible reasons for such findings.
The profiles of HIV/AIDS patients with DVT The profiles of HIV/AIDS patients with DVT Новинка

The profiles of HIV/AIDS patients with DVT

Many aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS] have been described in detail in the literature. However, there has been very few articles on the phenomenon of Deep Vein Thrombosis [DVT] in the lower extremities of human immunodeficiency virus [HIV/AIDS] infected patients. There is reason to believe that the number of patients being admitted with Deep Vein Thrombosis in our hospital recently has increased compared with past records. Many patients have also been admitted with pulmonary embolism some of which were actually diagnosed at autopsy. Of note is that most of these patients admitted either with DVT or thrombosis at other sites are also infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Although some of them have other risk factors for thrombosis like obesity, infections (e.g. Tuberculosis) etc, the relationship between thrombosis and HIV infection has been documented by many researchers. It has been found that HIV infection predisposes to a hypercoagulable state and that the risk of venous thromboembolism is about 10times that expected among people without HIV. In addition, various abnormalities leading to a hypercoagulable state have been detected in HIV patients
Nutrition and its sustainability of health status of HIV/AIDS patients Nutrition and its sustainability of health status of HIV/AIDS patients Новинка

Nutrition and its sustainability of health status of HIV/AIDS patients

This Study shows that HIV prevalence rates are high (20-25%) in Kenya though now dropping,and that variations do exist between regions of Kenya.Adults 15-64 years were estimated at 7.1% or 1.42 million people living with HIV infections in 2007.HIV prevalence among adults aged 15-49 years was 7.4% (KAIS,2007) While prevalence among youths (15-24 years) was found to be 3.8%.In adults aged 50-54 years,5.0% were found to be infected with HIV.Women were found more likely to be infected at 8.8% than men 5.4%. Significant differences in HIV prevalence were found across provinces,among adults 15-64 years in urban areas it was found to be 8.4% and in rural areas it was found to be 6.7%.majority of the infected cases were found in Nyanza and Rift valley provinces. HIV infections has socio-economic and health impacts to individuals/households and to the entire county Government .With support of Donor agencies has put in place Health Programme at AMPATH to support the intake and sustainability of the Health Status of HIV/AIDS Patients.
Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon Новинка

Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon

Food insecurity is a challenging matter for Syrian refugees in Lebanon due to their exhausted savings and assets. This book critically examines the nutritional status of Syrian refugees living in Lebanon, especially vulnerable groups such as children, pregnant and lactating women, identifies some of the factors likely to undermine their nutritional status, and therefore makes recommendations to practitioners and policy makers for an effective nutritional management and long-term food security of Syrian refugees in Lebanon.
ARE NATURAL SUPPLEMENTS AN ANSWER TO THE PROBLEM OF HIV/AIDS? ARE NATURAL SUPPLEMENTS AN ANSWER TO THE PROBLEM OF HIV/AIDS? Новинка

ARE NATURAL SUPPLEMENTS AN ANSWER TO THE PROBLEM OF HIV/AIDS?

The devastating impact of HIV as a chronic infectious agent on human kind has forced a consideration of the rationale of administering combined drug therapies that incorporate fusion inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors in chronically infected HIV patients. It is also worth considering using alternative therapies, such as antioxidants, as anti-retroviral therapies are limited for economic reasons and their associated toxicity.This study models and analyzes pre-treatment dynamics of viral production and progression with cellular-mediated immune responses in chronic HIV infection. The pre-treatment model is then extended to investigate the impact of administering a three drug combination regimen of reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors and fusion inhibitors to chronically infected HIV-positive patients. Again from the pretreatment model we develop the antioxidant therapy model that considers HIV-induced free radicals as promoters of apoptosis and viral replication, incorporating antioxidants as agents of oxidative defense against the oxidative pressures caused by the free radical molecules in chronically infected HIV patients..
Premarital HIV testing results and discordant rate Premarital HIV testing results and discordant rate Новинка

Premarital HIV testing results and discordant rate

Understanding and monitoring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among premarital clients and discordant rate among premarital couples and applying specific interventions targeted at this group could bring dual benefit as it prevents both heterosexual and vertical transmission of the disease. 8.2% of premarital VCT clients included in the current study were sero positive for HIV. 6.5% of premarital VCT couples were found to be sero discordant, while concordant negative and concordant positive accounted for 92.0% and 1.4% respectively. Both HIV sero positivity and discordance were relatively higher among those who previously separated/divorced and widowed partners. So, don’t you think that exerting special efforts to make premarital couples aware of their own and their partners’ sero status before engagement is imperative to their future healthy life and the future of the nations?
Nutritional Status of children under 5 from Urban and Rural India Nutritional Status of children under 5 from Urban and Rural India Новинка

Nutritional Status of children under 5 from Urban and Rural India

Nutritional status is one of the basic indicators of the well being of a child and quality of health care in a defined area. A nutritional deficit in the age group under 5 years can greatly hamper the well being and normalcy of the individual in the future. Regular healthcare programs cannot help maintain proper nutritional status of these children because of lack of monitoring. Many developing countries of the world like Africa and India face this problem and there is need to assess the status periodically to help higher bodies revise their plans of action. By means of anthropometric measurements, a clinical examination and a diet history of the subject, an assessment of their condition can be reached. Numerous parameters influence the nutritional status a great deal like socio-economic status, cultural factors, geographic locations, environmental conditions, and accessibility and utilization levels of health services which has been assessed in the present study. Strategic guidelines defined by the study should assist and motivate clinicians and social workers to uplift the healthcare services and pediatric nutritional status of the underprivileged sections of various countries.
Nutrition Status And Food Consumption Pattern Of Children With Cancer Nutrition Status And Food Consumption Pattern Of Children With Cancer Новинка

Nutrition Status And Food Consumption Pattern Of Children With Cancer

Since cancer is a terminal disease, the medical treatment of most children is usually more emphasized than the nutritional management but the two complement each other.Less emphasis on diet therapy increases morbidity and infections since the immunity of these children is weakened and they are not able to fight the disease effectively. The authors investigated the nutritional status, care and food consumption patterns of children with cancer to find out the foods consumption patterns of child cancer patients and how they impacted on their nutritional status. Research findings revealed that 32% of the children were stunted, 26% were underweight while 12% were wasted. The findings confirmed that all the 18.3% children in the advanced stage of the disease were malnourished.A majority(88.5%)of the children’s food intake was affected by the type of treatment received while the disease process affected 71.8% of the patient’s food intake. Therefore as treatment becomes more vigorous and as the disease advances the patients tend to develop more nutritional problems since their food intake is affected.Nutritionists should emphasize importance of adherence to the amounts of nutrients.
HIV Status Predictive Modeling Using Data Mining Technology HIV Status Predictive Modeling Using Data Mining Technology Новинка

HIV Status Predictive Modeling Using Data Mining Technology

This research work has attempted to investigate the underlying determinant factors of being HIV positive or HIV negative from the available HCT data using data mining techniques. It consists of experiments on searching classification model that predicts HIV status and association rule mining to discover the relationship of HIV status with the selected attributes. The classification experiments are carried out using J48 and ID3 algorithms. The association rule mining is using Apriori algorithm. One of the surprising results obtained from the experiment was that age group 50 and above are becoming also vulnerable to HIV/AIDS as the patterns have indicated. Medical experts also have stated that a growing number of older people are being infected with HIV/AIDS. One of the reasons they raised is that, they are finding HIV more often than ever before in older age since improved treatments are helping people with the disease live longer. The second reason is doctors do not always test older people for HIV/AIDS and so may miss some cases during routine check-ups and others.
Mycobacteremia and HIV Infection Mycobacteremia and HIV Infection Новинка

Mycobacteremia and HIV Infection

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. With the advent of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic, the problem of TB has got worse. The incidence of TB in patients with HIV infection / AIDS is nearly 500 times higher than in the general population. In HIV infected patients tuberculosis may frequently present in sites other than the lungs, lymphadenitis being the most common but it may be in the bone, liver, or in almost any organ of the body. Disseminated tuberculosis (DTB) is also more common in patients with HIV infection. Diagnosis of TB is also difficult in patients with HIV infection as rate of sputum AFB positivity is less and chest X-Ray changes are also atypical. The prevalence of extrapulmonary TB is also higher in patients with HIV infection were obtaining clinical samples is difficult. The present work is done to evaluate role of Mycobacteremia, which is a simple and convenient test done by blood culture using MB\Bact method, in diagnosis of tuberculosis with or without HIV infection.
Nutritional Profile Of Santal And Bauri Preschoolers Of Puruliya Nutritional Profile Of Santal And Bauri Preschoolers Of Puruliya Новинка

Nutritional Profile Of Santal And Bauri Preschoolers Of Puruliya

Homo sapiens sapiens is the scientific name of modern human with diversified biological and social variation among the same species. From the beginning of human origin biology and culture ruin parallel to its present form. Freedman (1976) has defined nutritional anthropology as ‘the study of the interrelationship between diet and culture and their mutual influence upon one another’. Nutritional status is the present body status, of a person or a population, related to their state of nourishment (the consumption and utilization of nutrients). The nutritional status is a major, modifiable and powerful element in promoting health, preventing and treating diseases and improving the quality of life. The nutritional status of a community is the sum of the nutritional status of the individual who form that community. The main objective of a “comprehensive” nutritional survey is to obtain precise information on the prevalence and geographic distribution of nutritional problem of a given community, and identification of individuals or population groups “at risk” or in greatest need of assistance. Anthropometric measurements play a very important role in the assessment of nutrition in human
Oral Microflora in HIV Oral Microflora in HIV Новинка

Oral Microflora in HIV

Many of the opportunistic infections in HIV are caused by commensal bacteria which are otherwise harmless in a normal individual.The study was designed to compare the oral microbiota in normal and HIV infected individuals. The study tries to establish a significant shift in oral microflora in HIV infected patients. Our study is unique in that such a study of the oral commensals in HIV patients has never been reported. We found an increased colonization of the oral cavity by Micrococcus spp. which is a normal commensal of the skin.
The Trend of HIV and CD4 Cell Count among HIV Patients on Treatment The Trend of HIV and CD4 Cell Count among HIV Patients on Treatment Новинка

The Trend of HIV and CD4 Cell Count among HIV Patients on Treatment

We obtained secondary data from the HIV/AIDS Monitoring Program at the Builsa District hospital, in which HIV patients were enrolled and their CD4 cell counts were being regularly monitored and thus generating repeated measures of CD4 counts. We could not tell whether patients on treatment increases or decreases in CD4 counts over time. The study was to investigate whether treatment and some social-economic factors influenced patients CD4 count after a period of treatment. Profile analysis was used to study the pattern of change in the CD4 count. Mixed effects modeling approach was also used for modeling the CD4 counts of the patients and to describe the relationship
Host Variabilities Influencing HIV/ART Outcomes Host Variabilities Influencing HIV/ART Outcomes Новинка

Host Variabilities Influencing HIV/ART Outcomes

Immunological progress remains a widely used form of HIV/ART monitoring, and efavirenz a preferred first line antiretroviral drug. The host for HIV may vary basing on CD4 cell type or values, genetic differences, and co-infections. CD4 cell values vary among HIV seronegative populations and among HIV patients starting ART. Variations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of efavirenz are widely documented. This book reports on the role of variability in relevant baseline immunological characteristics among HIV negative and positive populations and how variations in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of efavirenz can affect HIV/ART response.
Nutritional Status of Menopausal Women Nutritional Status of Menopausal Women Новинка

Nutritional Status of Menopausal Women

As a woman transitions to menopause, she experiences physiological and psychological changes that influence her over all well being. There is a general consensus that proper nutrition plays a key role in ensuring a healthy transition. However there are few studies on menopause and Nutritional status particularly in Kenya. The writer therefore set up to establish nutritional status of menopausal women in one of the rural sub locations in Kenya. Any woman going through menopause will get useful information on the health nutritional care of menopausal women. Enjoy.
Prevalence of Malaria Among HIV Clinic Attendants In Ghana Prevalence of Malaria Among HIV Clinic Attendants In Ghana Новинка

Prevalence of Malaria Among HIV Clinic Attendants In Ghana

Background: Malaria is associated with an increase in viral load and fall in CD4-cell count. This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of malaria among HIV patients in hospitals. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that reviewed HIV patients’ folders in hospitals in Ghana. Ethical approvals were obtained from three recognized Ethical Review Committees. Result: The total 933 patients were made of 272 (29.2%) males and 661 (70.8%) females. A prevalence of 4.4% (95% CI: 2.2, 6.6) confirmed cases of malaria was recorded in the study. Fever, was not significantly associated with confirmed malaria (OR=3.11, 95% CI: [0.63, 15.37], P=0.142). Conclusions: A low prevalence of confirmed malaria, 4.4% (95% CI: 2.2, 6.6), was recorded among HIV patients from Ghana. The prevalence could also be attributed to the high cases of malaria diagnosed presumptively (37.0%), (OR=4.11, 95% CI: [2.83, 5.96], P
Humoral immunity to HIV-1 in children Humoral immunity to HIV-1 in children Новинка

Humoral immunity to HIV-1 in children

HIV-1 infection in children is an important public health problem. Unlike adults, they get infected at the time of their birth itself. This leads to severe infection in children. There is a paucity of studies on the immune responses elicited against HIV-1 in children. This study conducted on naive and treated HIV-1 infected children from north India revealed the heterologous viral neutralization potential of the plasma of these patients. Higher viral neutralization potential was observed in patients on antiretroviral therapy as compared to naive patients, while the plasma antibodies to the immunogenic regions of the viral envelope were lesser in the treated patients. The viruses infecting the patients included in this study belonged to clade C as identified by the sequencing of a segment of HIV-1 envelope gene. Patients whose plasma showing high viral neutralization potential are good candidates for generation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against HIV-1. Further, determining their neutralization specificities will help in identifying epitopes crucial for vaccine design. This is the first study on evaluating the humoral immune responses in HIV-1 infected children.
KAP Regarding HIV/AIDS Among University Students In Xinjiang KAP Regarding HIV/AIDS Among University Students In Xinjiang Новинка

KAP Regarding HIV/AIDS Among University Students In Xinjiang

The aim of this research is to assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its risk factors, attitude towards HIV/AIDS and AIDS patients and its transmission and to identify high risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in Xinjiang. A cross–sectional survey was conducted among students enrolled Xingjiang University and Xinjiang Medical University. Data was collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire on KAP re HIV/AIDS among 400 students. Mean knowledge scores is significantly different by ethnicity, sex, subject major, and year of study in university. Only 33.3% of the respondents had positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS patient. With regards high risk behavior associated with HIV transmission, 15.8% had at least 1 risk behavior related to unprotected sexual exposure Conclusion: HIV/AIDS health education efforts should be intensified in non-medical universities, among female, first year and Uyghur and other minorities’ students. About two-thirds of the students had negative attitude towards HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS patients. Around 15% of these students reported having at least 1 high risk behavior related to unprotected sex
Survival Analysis and Stochastic Modelling on HIV/AIDS Data Survival Analysis and Stochastic Modelling on HIV/AIDS Data Новинка

Survival Analysis and Stochastic Modelling on HIV/AIDS Data

This book has been aimed to apply the cox proportional hazard model to assess the determinant factors of survival time and discrete time homogeneous semi markov model to predict the clinical progression of AIDS disease using secondary data obtained from the antiretroviral therapy unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The data were extracted from standard patient medical registration. A retrospective study was undertaken on a sample of 456 HIV/AIDS patients. Patients were followed for a median of 34 months. Of total sample, 312 (68.4%) were female and 144 (31.6%) were male. In the followed up period, 66 (14.5%) patients died and 390 (85.5%) patients were censored. The cox regression result indicated that the survival time of the HIV patient was significantly related with adherence level, age, alcohol use, CD4, condom use, functional status, marital status and WHO stage. The results of homogenous semi-markov model showed that the survival probability of a patient increased when CD4 count increased.
Analysis of Correlates of Nutritional Status of Adolescents Analysis of Correlates of Nutritional Status of Adolescents Новинка

Analysis of Correlates of Nutritional Status of Adolescents

This study is an attempt to study the determinants of nutritional status of adolescents in Jimma zone using data from longitudinal family survey of youth. The survey collected information from a total of 2084 adolescents aged from 13 to 17 years in Jimma zone. Depending on the objectives of the study, Univariate and multivariate linear regression statistical techniques were used for data analysis using socio-economic, demographic and health variable as explanatory variables and measures of nutritional status with underweight and stunting as response variables. The results of the analysis showed place of residence, sex of adolescent and working in a job were the most important determinants of adolescents nutritional status in Jimma zone.
Spectrum of Opportunistic Infections in HIV disease Spectrum of Opportunistic Infections in HIV disease Новинка

Spectrum of Opportunistic Infections in HIV disease

HIV infection,a global pandemic,causes profound immunodeficiency. As CD4 cell count declines, the patient is at higher risk of developing a variety of Opportunistic diseases (OI’s) including infections and neoplasms. Factors like Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS),failure of ART,ART resistance and drug compliance have further modified the course of this disease. However, patients at different stages of their Anti Retroviral Therapy continue to develop OI. This study shows the pattern of infections occurring in HIV patients . A prospective, longitudinal, study was done during a 2 year period over 100 HIV patients with opportunistic infection in Bharati Medical College,Hospital and research centre, Pune, Maharashtra,India. Most common infection was pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis followed by oral candidiasis , herpes zoster and toxoplasmosis respectively. Maximum patients were in median age of 40 yrs, males of labourer group were more commonly affected in study. Multiple as well as single OI were seen in a significant number of HIV patients. This study will guide the beginners studying HIV regarding various opportunistic infections in HIV disease.
Experiences of Transport Sector Employees Experiences of Transport Sector Employees Новинка

Experiences of Transport Sector Employees

Despite the global response to the HIV epidemic, the disclosure of HIV status in the workplace is still a problem globally and in South Africa, due to stigma attached to the disease. It is evident from the literature that HIV and AIDS is a dynamic and complex phenomenon with serious economic impact to companies.The goal of the study was to explore the experiences of HIV positive employees in the transport sector after they have disclosed their status in workplace.A qualitative phenomenological approch was appropriate for the study using an indepth study and as such one question was asked "how would you describe your daily living with HIV after you have disclosed your status in the workplace"?. 15 participants formed a sample. Participant's experiences varied from one to the other.Some experienced support while others rejection and isolation.One issue which stood out was management lack of knowledge of the disease.Recommendations based on the findings were made on how to manage HIV status disclosure in the workplace.
Distribution of Anti-EBV Antibodies in HIV-1 Positive Individuals Distribution of Anti-EBV Antibodies in HIV-1 Positive Individuals Новинка

Distribution of Anti-EBV Antibodies in HIV-1 Positive Individuals

Human Herpes Virus Type 4 or Epstein Barr Virus is known to exert its oncogenic potential in altered immune states, HIV/AIDS being one of them. The HHV4 life cycle involves the continuous production of various latent and lytic proteins. In HIV infection antibodies to non HIV micro-organisms is erratic because the entire immune system is trying to combat the rapidly replicating HIV. HIV associated tumors appear in HIV clinical stage 3. Literature has not been able to demonstrate, in an HIV positive population, the association of HIV clinical staging with EBV antibodies and EBV infection clinical stages . Virologists and clinicians who are interested in the interaction of HIV and other oncogenic viruses will find this a valuable addition to their knowledge.

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HIV/AIDS is a health problem in Cote d'Ivoire. With a prevalence rate of 4.7% in the general population aged between 15-49 years old (AIS CI-2005), the epidemic is generalized. As part of the second phase of the Global Fund, the measurement of indicators is a priority for the country. Where the conduct of an evaluation survey that will, in comparison with the baseline (February 2008), to assess the impact of the program The objective of the survey are: (i) to Evaluate the survival rate of people living with HIV after 12-18 months of antiretroviral treatment, (ii) to assess the main determinants of survival of patients on ARV and (iii) to determine the percentage of HIV-negative children (18-24 months) born to seropositive mothers. The results of the study showed that the survival rate of 12 months is estimated at 75% for patients placed on ARV between July 2007 and April 2008 against 71.7% for patients placed on ARV between January 2006 and December 2006, an Increase of 3.3%. Regarding children born to seropositive mothers, the proportion of children tested between 18-24 months is low (11%). The percentage of HIV-negative children born to HIV-positive mothers is estimated to 61.2%
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